A review by The Associated Press finds that colleges across the U.S. vary widely in their efforts to prepare students and employees for surviving a shooting rampage on campus.

Eight years after the Virginia Tech massacre, some campuses make "active shooter" training mandatory for incoming students. Others offer little more than brief online guidance on what to do with a gunman on the loose.

The AP looked at public colleges and universities in more than 40 states after yet another shooting, the killing of nine people at an Oregon community college Oct. 1.

At a handful of institutions, learning how to respond to an armed intruder has become as much a part of fall orientation as lectures on alcohol abuse. But at the majority of campuses, such training remains voluntary.